By Cesare Rossi
This ebook describes the innovations and designs of historical engineers who're the precursors of the current. The interval levels regularly from three hundred B.C. to 1600 A.D. with a number of exceptions. some of the oldest innovations are documented via archaeological unearths, usually little or no identified, usually from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and display a shocking modernity of their conception.
Most of the innovations provided within the first 4 elements of this publication have been conceived as much as the past due Roman Empire and will be regarded as milestones, every one of their respective box. The 5th half concentrates on more moderen centuries. The 6th half bargains with a few development development techniques.
Generally, for every of the offered innovations, 3 components of study and reference are supplied: written files (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings.
The authors didn't write this ebook for engineers in simple terms; for that reason they describe all of the units with no assuming vast technical wisdom. The authors’ major goal is to aim to speak their enthusiasm for the innovations and the inventors of the prior and to give a contribution to the attention-grabbing learn of the background of Engineering.
This moment variation contains new issues and chapters which are of particular curiosity to engineers.
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Extra info for Ancient Engineers' Inventions: Precursors of the Present
The sum of all three forming the total, or measurement—an extremely laborious process. Which, in light of the great number of measurements required for the commerce of the era, suggests the existence of special straightedges able to graphically reduce a known size to a smaller or larger one, as occurs for example with a pantograph. A normal scissors would provide similar results as the distance between the two points were proportional to the distance between the eyelets. Babylonian mathematics, based (as was all Babylonian culture) on the Sumerian tradition, adopted operational criteria that we still use today, such as: • Positional notion, introduced in Europe only in the Middle Ages, extended also to fractional values allowing for inﬁnite precision calculations • Base-60 numbering, currently used to measure time and degrees • Pythagorean theorem • Use of algorithms, of which the most famous takes its name from Newton to calculate the square root • Use of logarithmic tables.
Contrary to the ones used for carpentry work and construction, these tools had to allow for altimetric mapping along very long extensions, often for hundreds of kilometres. They were indispensable in providing sight estimates at a moderate distance and could assess the horizontal direction not of a slab but of a general course that extended for dozens of meters. By studying the water’s ability to maintain an always perfectly flat surface, in whatever container and at whatever inclination, they devised numerous tools but the best known and most reliable result was the Roman chorobate, still in use during the Renaissance.
The balance scale essentially consists in a couple of pans suspended from a yoke; the latter is suspended in the middle point between the points in which the dishes are suspended. The use is very easy and well-known: the © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017 C. Rossi and F. 1007/978-3-319-44476-5_2 19 20 2 Measuring Mass Fig. 1 Balance scale and god Anubis object that has to be weighed is located on a pan while on the other pan are located weights having known value, until the yoke is horizontal.
Ancient Engineers' Inventions: Precursors of the Present by Cesare Rossi