By R. W. Haywood and W. A. Woods (Auth.)
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4 kJ/kg. 6. A petrol engine is fitted with a turbo-supercharger, which comprises a centrifugal compressor driven by an exhaust gas-turbine. The gravimetric ratio of air to fuel supplied to the engine is 12, the fuel being mixed with the air between the compressor and the engine. 5 bar. 3 bar and a temperature of 510 °C and leave the turbine at a pressure of 1 bar. The isentropic efficiencies of the turbine and compressor are each 80 %. Assuming that the thermal properties of the exhaust gases are the same as for air, calculate: (a) the temperature of the air leaving the compressor; (b) the temperature of the gases leaving the turbine; (c) the power loss in the turbo-supercharger, due to external friction, expressed as a percentage of the power generated in the turbine.
The limiting pressure ratio of 100, corresponding to qp = Tb/Tay is impracticably large. Study of Fig. 2 also shows that as rp approaches this figure the area enclosed by the cycle on the temperature entropy diagram tends towards zero. · FIG. 3. Variation of cycle efficiency with isentropic temperature ratio (t. = 15 °C). output per unit mass of air circulated tends to zero, so that the physical size of a plant designed for such a condition would also become impracticably large. However, neither of these considerations is of any real practical significance since, as will be seen next, a pressure ratio as high as this is never used because the performance is altered beyond recognition when the effects of irreversibilities are taken into a c c o u n t .
A typical spark-ignition engine might have an overall efficiency of 30 % and the heat transferred to the jacket cooling water might amount to 45 % of the calorific value of the fuel, so that (W-\-Q)om would be 75 % . 2 shows that, with zero excess air, the exhaust temperature would then be about 630 °C. 8. 7 for the arbitrarily defined overall efficiency of turbines and reciprocating I C plant are of the same order as the rationally defined overall efficiency η0 of cyclic, closed-circuit gas-turbine plant.
Analysis of Engineering Cycles by R. W. Haywood and W. A. Woods (Auth.)