By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Committee on America's Climate Choices
Weather switch is happening. it's very most likely brought on by the emission of greenhouse gases from human actions, and poses major hazards for more than a few human and average platforms. And those emissions proceed to extend, with the intention to lead to extra swap and bigger dangers. America's weather offerings makes the case that the environmental, financial, and humanitarian dangers posed through weather switch point out a urgent desire for mammoth motion now to restrict the value of weather switch and to arrange for adapting to its affects. even though there's a few uncertainty approximately destiny danger, appearing now will lessen the dangers posed via weather swap and the strain to make greater, extra fast, and possibly costlier rate reductions later. such a lot activities taken to minimize vulnerability to weather swap affects are logic investments that might provide defense opposed to normal weather adaptations and severe occasions. additionally, the most important funding judgements made now approximately gear and infrastructure can "lock in" commitments to greenhouse fuel emissions for many years to come back. ultimately, whereas it can be attainable to cut back or opposite many responses to weather swap, it truly is tricky or most unlikely to "undo" weather switch, as soon as manifested. present efforts of neighborhood, kingdom, and private-sector actors are very important, yet not really to yield growth such as what may be completed with the addition of sturdy federal regulations that identify coherent nationwide ambitions and incentives, and that advertise powerful U.S. engagement in international-level reaction efforts. The inherent complexities and uncertainties of weather switch are top met by way of utilizing an iterative danger administration framework and making efforts to noticeably lessen greenhouse fuel emissions; organize for adapting to affects; put money into clinical examine, expertise improvement, and knowledge structures; and facilitate engagement among clinical and technical specialists and the numerous forms of stakeholders making America's weather offerings.
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The California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32) enacted a sweeping set of GHG emission control programs for the state (and it survived a ballot proposition to repeal the Act in 2010). , the Climate Registry, the California Climate Action Registry, the Carbon Disclosure Project of ICLEI—Local Governments for Sustainability). 16 Adaptation strategies are being explored in climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture and water resources management, which have historically adapted to natural climate variability in ways that may reduce vulnerabilities to climate change.
S. policies for reducing domestic emissions will help advance international-level efforts to do the same. Climate change is one of multiple, interconnected challenges. Climate change is just one of many interacting factors affecting humans and their environment. Coastal environments, for example, are being affected not only by GHG-driven changes such as sea level rise, ocean acidification, changes in air and water temperature, and precipitation and storm patterns, but also by pollution runoff, invasive species, coastal development, 32 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.
S. strategy for responding to climate change must therefore include careful consideration of which information, incentives, and regulations (provided by which level of government) will most effectively engage and facilitate wise decision making by these multiple actors. In some cases, the appropriate federal role may be limited to decision support, while in other contexts, more active policy guidance and coordination power are needed. Limiting climate change requires global-scale efforts. A molecule of CO2 emitted in India or China has the same effect on the climate system as a molecule emitted in the United States.
America's Climate Choices by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Committee on America's Climate Choices