Opinion leaders in technological know-how and politics learn findings and laws in choices to animal testing!
Refine, lessen, change - those are the 3 calls for that scientists have positioned upon themselves of their look for possible choices to animal checking out. certainly a lot interdisciplinary learn is being carried on at the present time, and new fields have emerged, equivalent to in-vitro toxicology.
the 3 R's demand new medical insights. in addition, validation and popularity concepts need to be tailored, a strategy of a lot ongoing curiosity and very important trouble to the pharmaceutical and beauty industries.
Researchers want to know precisely what has been accomplished and authorized in possible choices to animal trying out in technological know-how and politics. during this booklet they've got the chance to profit from the information and services of major researchers and influential representatives of nationwide and foreign regulatory professionals.
Chapter 1 in retrospect 33 Years to Russell and Burch: the improvement of the idea that of the 3 Rs (Alternatives) (pages 1–11): Andrew N. Rowan
Chapter 2 The OECD and overseas Regulatory attractiveness of the 3 Rs (pages 13–19): Hugo M. Van Looy and Herman B. W. M. Koeter
Chapter three the ecu Centre for the Validation of other equipment (ECVAM) (pages 21–25): Erminio Marafante and Michael Balls
Chapter four A Timetable for changing, lowering and Refining Animal use with assistance from in Vitro assessments: The Limulus Amebocyte Lysate try out (LAL) for instance (pages 27–43): Oliver Flint
Chapter five The Fund for the alternative of Animals in scientific Experiments (FRAME): 23 Years of Campaigning for the 3 Rs (pages 45–55): Michael Balls and Julia H. Fentem
Chapter 6 Animal Use and possible choices: advancements within the Netherlands (pages 57–65): L. F. M. van Zutphen
Chapter 7 The RIVM middle for choices to Animal trying out and the idea that of the 3 Rs within the quality controls of Vaccines (pages 67–74): Coenraad F. M. Hendriksen
Chapter eight ZEBET: 3 Years of the nationwide German middle for Documentation and evaluate of choices to Animal Experiments on the Federal wellbeing and fitness workplace (BGA) in Berlin (pages 75–84): Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune?Wolff and Manfred Liebsch
Chapter nine Reviewed Literature Databank for possible choices to Animal Experiments – “Gelbe Liste” (pages 85–88): Brigitte Rusche and Ursula G. Sauer
Chapter 10 The SIAT examine, instructing and Consulting application within the quarter of in Vitro Toxicology. Experimental examine, Screening and Validation (pages 89–98): Christoph A. Reinhardt
Chapter eleven Computer?Aided Drug layout and the 3 Rs (pages 99–106): Angelo Vedani
Chapter 12 Computer?Aided courses in Biomedical schooling (pages 107–117): Richard T. Fosse
Chapter thirteen possible choices to Experiments with Animals in clinical schooling: A TEMPUS Joint eu undertaking (pages 119–123): Miroslav Cervinka, Zuzana Cervinkova, Michael Balls and Horst Spielmann
Chapter 14 alternative of Laboratory Animals within the administration of Blood?Sucking Arthropods (pages 125–129): Achim E. Issmer, Thomas H. Schilling, Andreas Vollmer and Jorg Grunewald
Chapter 15 upkeep of Filarial Cycles within the Laboratory: ways to changing the Vertebrate Host (pages 131–139): Joachim Rapp, Wolfgang H. Hoffmann, Lisette Keller, Andrea Welzel and Hartwig Schulz?Key
Chapter sixteen more desirable Drug Metabolizing ability of Hepatocytes Co?Cultured with Epithelial Cells and Maintained in a Perifusion approach (pages 141–146): Rolf Gebhardt
Chapter 17 Characterization and Use of Long?Term Liver Cultures to judge the Toxicity of Cyclophosphamide or Benzene to Bone Marrow Cultures (pages 147–157): Brian A. Naughton, Benson Sibanda, Julia San Roman and Gail ok. Naughton
Chapter 18 ecu Interlaboratory review of an in Vitro Ocular inflammation version (Skin2TM version ZK1100) utilizing 18 chemical substances and Formulated items (pages 159–164): Peter W. Joller, Alain Coquette, Jos Noben, Raffaella Pirovano, Jacqueline A. Southee and Pamela okay. Logemann
Chapter 19 mobile Assays for trying out Peritoneal Dialysis baggage (pages 165–171): Mary Dawson and Zara Jabar
Chapter 20 the placement of the gurus (pages 173–176): Lavinia Pioda
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Extra resources for Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition
Toxicology in Vitro 4, 675-679. Alternatives to Animal Testing Edited by Christoph A. Reinhardt Copyright 0VCH VerlagsgesellschaftmbH 1994 3 The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) Erminio Marafante and Michael Balls Summary At the end of 1991, the Commission of the European Communities informed the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament of its decision to set up a European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), in line with its responsibilities under Directive 86/609/EEC.
5 Three Rs improvements in OECD test guidelines The experts who developed the first guidelines on health effects during 1979/80 gave importance to considerations of animal welfare, as can be judged from the following quote from their summary report: “With the objective of an efficient approach to testing chemicals there is no point in having more groups or more animals per group than are strictly necessary to attain the end-point of the reliable detection of toxic effects” (OECD, 1981a). This consider- OECD and acceptance of the Three Rs 17 ation was reflected in several early health effects guidelines where the numbers of animals recommended were lower than in the methods which were then commonly practiced.
This argument is not specific to endotoxin but, with the possible exception of toxins that poison respiration (for example, cyanide), is generally applicable. Even in the case of cyanide, there is little direct correlation between death of the animal and cell death in tissue culture. , 1991). , 1989). Under argon atmosphere-induced hypoxic conditions cultured cells survive cyanide exposure better than in air (Aw and Jones, 1989). Cultured cells can thus survive chemical or atmospheric hypoxia by using glycolysis, and the resultant reduction in dependence on mitochondrial respiration renders the cell less, not more, sensitive to cyanide poisoning.
Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition