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By Baxter G.P., Grover F.L.

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This method can, however, also be used to study the structures of macromolecules. This is done with two variations of the technique: electron crystallography [64] and single-particle cryoelectron microscopy [65–67]. Single-particle studies require relatively large molecule sizes (corresponding to molecular weights of at least 100–200 kDa). The resolution of the obtained structures is not particularly impressive (20–30 Å); nevertheless, single-particle studies are invaluable in cases where no crystals can be obtained.

This problem is all the more serious as the phases contain much more important information than the amplitudes. For macromolecular structure analysis, there are mainly two methods to circumvent the phase problem: Molecular replacement (MR) and heavy-atom phasing methods. The first method is relatively simple. It involves placing a similar molecule in the lattice of the crystal under investigation (in the same orientation and position as the target molecule) and then calculating the phases from this model by means of a Fourier analysis.

R ϭ h #Fobs" Ϫ "Fcalc#͞ h "Fobs". In least squares refinement, the target of refinement is for each reflection. qxd 22 5/28/2007 18:17 Page 22 U. Krengel and A. 1. Limitations The final structural models are deposited in the PDB [1], from which the atomic coordinates and structure factors (that represent the experimental data) can then be retrieved by any interested individual. The databases as well as the scientific publications contain in addition a wealth of information, from which the limits of the structural models can be estimated.

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A Revision of the Atomic Weight of Lead (1914)(en)(7s) by Baxter G.P., Grover F.L.

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