By Robert Cole
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Additional resources for A. J. P. Taylor: The Traitor within the Gates
20 Consequently, imperial officials typically believed that it was a miracle to get through today, without worrying about getting through next year. 21 But, having argued this, he went on to indicate that if ministerial responsibility was unpopular with the Habsburgs, the idea of popular participation in the political process was more so.
In 1847, the Metternichian policy, diplomatiC, timid in a manner of speaking, presenting Austria in rationalist, eighteenth-century terms, restrained the European powers by insisting upon recognition of the 1815 treaty, and the form of international law that accompanied it. But in 1848 Schwarzenberg, aggreSSive, almost a bully, presented Austria as a modem power state fully capable of competing on equal terms with any other, and ready to overthrow treaties and law in favour of territorial aggrandisement and national selfinterest.
But, as Taylor pOinted out, Metternich had missed the point in all of this. The Europe outside of the Empire that Taylor described was no longer responsive to reaction and legitimist internationalism, but increasingly to nationalism and liberty (not to be confused with liberality). Such was the case with France after 1830, England after 1832, and Italy by 1847. Austria would have to deal with Italy on its own. The remainder of Taylor's study concerned the diplomatiC events surrounding the Austrian war with Sardinia and Lombardy, threats by Republican France to intervene, FrancoAustrian negotiations at the height of the Italian crisis, renewed outbreaks of revolutionary violence in Vienna - or 'merely street demonstrations' as Taylor termed them - and the dictatorial Austrian policy for the provinces which followed military victory in Lombardy.
A. J. P. Taylor: The Traitor within the Gates by Robert Cole